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Django-simple-captcha驗證碼包使用方法詳解

時間:2020-11-29來源:www.farandoo.com作者:電腦系統城

django-simple-captcha是django的驗證碼包,非常簡單實用,這次記錄的是如何點擊驗證碼后刷新驗證碼,因為這個功能官方文檔并沒有詳細給出。

django-simple-captcha官方文檔:http://django-simple-captcha.readthedocs.io/en/latest/

django-simple-captcha的github網址:https://github.com/mbi/django-simple-captcha

開始

1.安裝 pip install django-simple-captcha, pip install Pillow

2.將captcha 加入 settings.py 的 INSTALLED_APPS

3.運行 python manage.py makemigrations 和 python manage.py migrate

4.url路由加入urls.py的urlpatterns

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urlpatterns = [
  path('captcha/', include('captcha.urls')),    # 圖片驗證碼 路由
  path('refresh_captcha/', views.refresh_captcha),  # 刷新驗證碼,ajax
  path('test/',IndexView.as_view()),         #get與post請求路徑
]

5.在views.py中加入以下代碼

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from django.shortcuts import render
from django.views.generic import View
from captcha.models import CaptchaStore
from captcha.helpers import captcha_image_url
from django.http import HttpResponse
import json
 
 
# 創建驗證碼
def captcha():
  hashkey = CaptchaStore.generate_key() # 驗證碼答案
  image_url = captcha_image_url(hashkey) # 驗證碼地址
  captcha = {'hashkey': hashkey, 'image_url': image_url}
  return captcha
 
#刷新驗證碼
def refresh_captcha(request):
  return HttpResponse(json.dumps(captcha()), content_type='application/json')
 
# 驗證驗證碼
def jarge_captcha(captchaStr, captchaHashkey):
  if captchaStr and captchaHashkey:
    try:
      # 獲取根據hashkey獲取數據庫中的response值
      get_captcha = CaptchaStore.objects.get(hashkey=captchaHashkey)
      if get_captcha.response == captchaStr.lower(): # 如果驗證碼匹配
        return True
    except:
      return False
  else:
    return False
 
 
class IndexView(View):
  def get(self, request):
    hashkey = CaptchaStore.generate_key() # 驗證碼答案
    image_url = captcha_image_url(hashkey) # 驗證碼地址
    print(hashkey,image_url)
    captcha = {'hashkey': hashkey, 'image_url': image_url}
    return render(request, "login.html", locals())
 
  def post(self, request):
    capt = request.POST.get("captcha", None) # 用戶提交的驗證碼
    key = request.POST.get("hashkey", None) # 驗證碼答案
    if jarge_captcha(capt, key):
      return HttpResponse("驗證碼正確")
    else:
      return HttpResponse("驗證碼錯誤")

6.templates文件夾下login.html的內容

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{% load static %}
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <title>Title</title>
  <script src="https://cdn.bootcdn.net/ajax/libs/jquery/3.5.1/jquery.js"></script>
  <script src="https://cdn.bootcdn.net/ajax/libs/twitter-bootstrap/4.0.0/js/bootstrap.js"></script>
</head>
<body>
  <form action="/test/" method="post">
    {% csrf_token %}
    <a href="#" rel="external nofollow" class="captcha">
      <img src="{{ captcha.image_url }}" alt="點擊切換" id="id_captcha" >
    </a> <br>
    <input type="text" name="captcha" placeholder="驗證碼"> <br>
    <input value="{{ captcha.hashkey }}" name="hashkey" type="hidden" id="id_captcha_0">
    <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary btn-block ">提交</button>
  </form>
<script>
    <!-- 動態刷新驗證碼js -->
    $(document).ready(function(){
      $('.captcha').click(function () {
        $.getJSON("/refresh_captcha/", function (result) {
          $('#id_captcha').attr('src', result['image_url']);
          $('#id_captcha_0').val(result['hashkey'])
        });
      });
    });
</script>
</body>
</html>

django-simple-captcha并沒有使用session對驗證碼進行存儲,而是使用了數據庫,當你在做數據庫遷移的時候會生成一個表 captcha_captchastore ,包含以下字段

challenge = models.CharField(blank=False, max_length=32) # 驗證碼大寫或者數學計算比如 1+1
response = models.CharField(blank=False, max_length=32) # 需要輸入的驗證碼 驗證碼小寫或數學計算的結果 比如 2
hashkey = models.CharField(blank=False, max_length=40, unique=True) # hash值
expiration = models.DateTimeField(blank=False) # 到期時間

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